Configuration via Environment Variables

Use these environment variables to configure Zammad’s behavior at runtime.


🙋 What’s an environment variable, and how do I “use” it?

Unfortunately, that question has a very long answer that goes beyond the scope of this article. How you set environment variables will depend on how you installed Zammad (e.g., source, package, or Docker).

But for package installations, here’s a short answer:

# set OPTION to "value"
$ zammad config:set OPTION=value
$ systemctl restart zammad

# get OPTION
$ zammad config:get OPTION

# unset OPTION
$ zammad config:unset OPTION
$ systemctl restart zammad

To learn more, do some googling on environment variables and the shell environment (or execution environment) in Unix.


While below options and remarks affect all installation types of Zammad, please note that environment variables mentioned may be named different for installations based on docker-compose and kubernetes.

General Options


The command Zammad will use to automatically restart the server after changes have been made in the Object Manager. (E.g., "systemctl restart zammad")

If this is undefined, you will have to restart manually after making changes in the Object Manager. Please keep in mind that Zammad runs as unprivileged user. This means that you have to allow the Zammad user via e.g. sudoers to run the required restart command.

Default: unset


Defines the path to the GPG installation. This is only needed if you installed Zammad from Source, if you want to use different versions of PGP on your machine or if your PGP installation differs from the standard installation.

Default: unset


Print output directly to standard output instead of /var/log/zammad/production.log.

This setting can be overwritten during update on package installations. Use enabled to turn this option on only until the next update. Use true to turn it on permanently.

Default: unset


Ignore availability of third-party services when running Zammad commands. Possible values: 1 or true


Be careful when running Zammad commands on production systems in safe mode.

While it may allow an escape hatch for certain commands, it has a potential to break regular Zammad operations.

Default: unset


Defines the HTTP protocol of your instance. Possible values: http or https

Default: http


Defines the fully qualified domain name of the system.


🖧 Network Options


Remember to update your web server config to reflect any changes you make here.


The IP address that the web server is bound to.



The port that the web server is exposed on.

Default: 3000


The port that the web socket server is exposed on.

Default: 6042

🎛️ Performance Tuning

Each of below settings comes with its own tradeoffs.

There are no “recommended values” here; the optimal configuration will depend on your system’s resources and typical application load.

Proceed with caution; when adjusting any of these settings, there is a point at which performance will begin to degrade rather than improve, or other problems will begin to crop up.

Below settings may consume all available database connections. Please consider the database server configuration section for more.

To find out how many users are currently on Zammad, you can use the rails command below:

$ zammad run rails r "p Sessions.list.uniq.count"

How many instances of the application server to keep open at a time.

Increasing this can reduce loading times when too many users are on Zammad at once.

Default: unset


How many instances of the session worker to run at a time.

Increasing this can speed up background jobs (like the scheduler) when too many users are on Zammad at once.

Generally speaking, it should only be useful to adjust this setting if you have more than 40 active users at a time.


🥵 Session workers can be extremely CPU-intensive.

In some cases, they can reach 100% CPU utilization on their own. Increasing this setting is safer on systems with more cores.

Default: unset


Allows spawning an independent process just for processing scheduled jobs like LDAP syncs. This can free up Zammads background worker for other tasks when running tasks that require fairly long.

Default: unset
Maximum number of workers: 1


Disable processing of scheduled jobs by setting ZAMMAD_PROCESS_SCHEDULED_JOBS_DISABLE.

Doing so on productive instances will draw important parts of your instance not working. WE STRONGLY encourage against using this flag.


How many processes should work on delayed jobs?

Increasing this can improve issues with delayed jobs stacking up in your system. You may want to try to use ZAMMAD_SESSION_JOBS_CONCURRENT before though.

Default: unset
Maximum number of workers: 16


🥵 This option can be very CPU-intensive.


Disable processing of delayed jobs by setting ZAMMAD_PROCESS_DELAYED_JOBS_DISABLE.

Doing so on productive instances will draw important parts of your instance not working. WE STRONGLY encourage against using this flag.


The options listed below allow you to distribute Zammad processes over several application nodes. Even if that’s not your goal, they may provide great benefits on bigger installations.

Please note that distribution of processes on several nodes is out of the scope of this documentation for various reasons.

Store your web socket connection information within Redis.
To do so, tell Zammad where to find your Redis instance: redis://your.redis.server:6379

If not provided, Zammad falls back to file system (/opt/zammad/tmp/websocket_*).

Default: unset

Store your application cache files within Memcached.
To do so, tell Zammad where to find your Memcached instance: your.memcached.server:11211

If not provided, Zammad falls back to file system (/opt/zammad/tmp/cache*).

Memcached allows you to restrict the maximum size Zammad may store as cache. This comes in handy in terms of performance and keeping caching files small. 1 GB should be a reasonable size.

Storage Options


Allows you to provide your S3 configuration. Please have a look in our admin documentation, where the setup of S3 storage is described.

Format / example: